Chandelier | Wikipedia audio article

a chandelier also known as durandal candelabra lamp or least commonly suspended lights is a branched ornamental light fixture designed to be mounted on ceilings or walls chandeliers are often ornate and normally use incandescent light bulbs though some modern designs also use fluorescent lamps and recently LEDs classic chandeliers have arrays of hanging crystal prisms to illuminate a room with refracted light while contemporary chandeliers assume a more minimalist design that does not contain prisms in illuminate a room with direct light from the lamps sometimes also equipped with translucent glass covering each lamp modern chandeliers have a more modernized design that uses LEDs and combines the elements of both classic and contemporary designs some also equipped with refractive crystal prisms or small mirrors chandeliers are distinct from pendant lights as they usually consist of multiple lamps and hanging branched frames whereas pendant lights hang from a single cord and only contain one or two lamps with fewer decorative elements due to the size they are often installed in hallways living rooms staircases lounges and dining rooms however miniature chandeliers also exist allowing them to be installed in smaller spaces such as bedrooms or small living spaces chandeliers evolved from candelabra and were invented during the medieval era they originally used candles as their source of light and remained in use until the 18th century when gas lights later superseded by electric lights were invented topic etymology the word chandelier was first known in the English language in the 1736 borrowed from the old french word kandar a which comes from the latin candelabrum topic history the earliest candle chandeliers were used by the wealthy in medieval times this type of chandelier could be moved to different rooms from the 15th century more complex forms of chandeliers based on ring or crown designs became popular decorative features in palaces and homes of nobility clergy and merchants their high cost made chandeliers symbols of luxury and status by the early 18th century ornate cast ormolu forms with long curved arms and many candles were in the homes of many in the growing merchant class neoclassical motifs became an increasingly common element mostly in cast metals but also in carved and gilded wood chandeliers made in this style also drew heavily on the aesthetic of ancient Greece and Rome incorporating clean lines classical proportions and mythological creatures developments in glass making later allowed cheaper production of lead crystal the light scattering properties of which quickly made it a popular addition to the form leading to the crystal chandelier during the 18th century glass chandeliers were produced by Bohemians and venetian glass makers who were both masters in the art of making chandeliers bohemian style was largely successful across Europe and its biggest draw was the chance to obtain spectacular light refraction due to facets and bevels of crystal prisms as a reaction to this new taste Italian glass factories in Murano created new kinds of artistic light sources since Murano glass was not suitable for faceting typical work realized at the time in other countries where crystal was used Venetian glass makers relied upon the unique qualities of their glass typical features of a Murano chandelier are the intricate arabesques of leaves flowers and fruits that would be enriched by colored glass made possible by the specific type of glass used in Murano this glass they worked with was so unique as it was soda glass famed for its extraordinary clarity and was a complete contrast to all different types of glass produced in the world at that time an incredible amount of skill and time was required to precisely twist and shape chandelier this new type of chandelier was called Sayaka literally bouquet of flowers for the characteristic decorations of glazed polychrome flowers the most sumptuous of them consisted of a metal frame covered with small elements in blown glass transparent or colored with decorations of flowers fruits and leaves while simpler models had arms made with unique pieces of glass their shape was inspired by an original architectural concept the space on the inside is left almost empty since decorations are spread all around the central support distanced from it by the length of the arms one of the common uses of the huge Murano chandeliers was the interior lighting of theatres and rooms in important palaces in the mid 19th century as gas lighting caught on branched ceiling fixtures called gas aleeah's a portmanteau of gas and chandelier were produced and many candles chandeliers were converted by the 1890s with the appearance of electric light some chandeliers used both gas and electricity as distribution of electricity widened and supplies became dependable electric only chandeliers became standard another portmanteau word electra lire was formed for these but nowadays they are most commonly called chandeliers some are fitted with bulbs shaped to imitate candle flames for example those shown below in Epsom and Chatsworth or with bulbs containing a shimmering gas discharged the world's largest English glass chandelier hancock Rickson and dunt and probably F&C Osler is located in the dolmabache a palace in istanbul it has 750 lamps and weighs 4.

5 tons dolmabache a has the largest collection of British and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world and one of the great staircases has balusters of Baccarat crystal more complex and elaborate chandeliers continue to be developed throughout the 18th and 19th centuries but the widespread introduction of gas and electricity had two valued the Chandler's appeal as a status symbol toward the end of the 20th century chandeliers were often used as decorative focal points for rooms and often did not illuminate you topic glossary of terms' Adams style a neoclassical style light airy and elegant chandelier usually English arm the light bearing part of a chandelier also sometimes known as a branch arm plate the metal or wooden block placed on the stem into which the arm slot bag a bag of crystal drops formed by strings hanging from a circular frame and looped back into the center underneath associated especially with early American Crystal and Regency style crystal chandeliers balusters a turned wood or molded stem forming the axis of a chandelier with alternating narrow and bulbous parts of varying width speed a glass drop with a hole drilled right through bow bash a dish fitted just below the candle nozzle designed to catch strips of wax also known as a drip pan branch another name for the light bearing part of a chandelier also known as an arm candelabra not to be confused with chandeliers candelabras or candlesticks usually branched designed to stand on tables or if lodged the floor candle beam across made from two wooden beams with one or more cups and pricketts at each end for securing candles candle nozzle the small cup into which the end of the candle is slotted canapé an inverted shallow dish at the top of a chandelier from which festoons of beads are often suspended lending a flourish to the top of the fitting cage an arrangement where the central stem supporting arms and decorations is replaced by a metal structure leaving the center clear for candles and further embellishments corona another term for crown style chandelier crown a circular chandelier reminiscent of a crown usually of gilded metal or brass and often with upstanding decorative elements crystal glass with a chemical content that gives it special qualities of clarity resonance and softness making it especially suitable for cutting for example lead crystal drip pan the dish fitted just below the candle muzzle designed to catch drips of Wax know also as a bow bash drop a small piece of glass usually cut into one of many shapes and drilled at one end so that it can be hung from the chandelier with a brass pin a chain drop is drilled at both ends so that a series can be hung together to form a necklace or festoon dutch also known as Flemish a style of brass chandelier with a bulbous balusters and arms curving down around the low hung ball festoon an arrangement of glass drops or beads draped and hung across or down a glass chandelier or sometimes a piece of solid glass shaped into a swag also known as a garland final the final flourish at the very bottom of the stem some Venetian glass chandeliers have little finals hanging from glass rings on the arms hoop a circular metal support for arms usually on a Regency styles or other chandelier with glass pieces also known as a ring Montgolfier chandelier chandelier with shape of Montgolfier the early French hot air balloon molded the process by which a glass piece is shaped by being blown into a mold neoclassical style chandelier glass chandelier featuring many delicate arms spires and strings of ovals rhomboids or octagons panic Adele Oh Gothic candelabrum chandelier hung from centers of Orthodox cathedrals domes prism a straight many-sided drop Regency style chandelier a larger chandelier with a multitude of drops above a who prized strings of beads that diminish in size an attached at the top to form a canopy a bag with concentric rings of pointed glass forms a waterfall beneath the stem is usually completely hidden soda glass a type of glass used typically in Venetian glass chandeliers soda glass remains plastic for longer when heated and can therefore be shaped into elegant curving leaves and flowers refract slight paulien is normally fire-polished spire a tall spike of glass round in section or flat sided to which arms and decorative elements may be attached made from wood metal or glass tent a tent shaped structure on the upper part of a glass chandelier where necklaces of drops attached at the top to a canopy and at the bottom to a larger ring Venetian a glass from the island of Murano Venice but usually used to describe any chandelier in Venetian style waterfall or wedding cake concentric rings of icicle drops suspended beneath the hoop or plates topics see also ceiling rose Durandal candelabra J&L lob me air the first company to make an electric chandelier light fixture sconce.

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